Z. Dabčević, B. Škugor, J. Deur

Pareto Optimization of Electric City Bus Scheduling

18th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES), Dubrovnik, Croatia, 2023.
This paper presents an approach to electric city bus scheduling optimization, which results in a Pareto frontier in two conflicting criteria being minimized: the number of buses required to serve predetermined routes and the excess of distance travelled (so-called deadhead distance). These criteria reflect the city bus fleet investment and operational costs, respectively. The sequential optimization strategy is executed in two phases: 1) finding the minimal number of buses, and 2) gradually incrementing the number of buses from the minimal one and minimizing the deadhead distance. Two optimization methods are proposed: mixed integer linear programming and genetic algorithm, where the former provides the optimal solution but it is limited to small-scale problems (fleets), while the latter can deal with large fleets but generally results in a nearly optimal solution. The optimization approach is demonstrated on a custom-generated dataset reflecting characteristics of real-world city bus transport systems.