J. Deur, M. Kostelac, Z. Herold, V. Ivanović, D. Pavković, J. Asgari, C. Miano, D. Hrovat

An In-Wheel Motor-Based Tyre Test Vehicle

International Journal of Vehicle System Modelling and Testing, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 252-275, 2007.
An experimental three-wheel electrical vehicle has been developed in order to provide a platform for experimental verifications of advanced tyre friction models, estimators and controllers. The vehicle comprises a high-torque permanent-magnet synchronous motor built in the front wheel and precise incremental encoders for the front- and rear-wheel speed measurements. The paper presents a description of the vehicle and gives characteristic experimental procedures and results related to motor static and dynamic behaviour. Experimental results on tyre friction identification are also presented.