J. Soldo, B. Škugor, J. Deur

Synthesis of Optimal Battery State-of-Charge Trajectory for Blended Regime of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the Presence of Low-Emission Zones and Varying Road Grades

Energies, Vol. 12, No. 22, pp. 1-21, 2019.
he powertrain efficiency for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) can be maximized by gradually discharging the battery in a blended regime, where the engine is regularly used all over the driving cycle. A key step in designing an optimal PHEV control strategy for the blended regime corresponds to synthesis of battery state-of-charge (SoC) reference trajectory. The paper first demonstrates that the optimal SoC trajectory can significantly differ from a typical linear-like shape in the case of varying road grade and presence of low-emission zones (LEZ). Next, dynamic programming (DP)-based optimizations of PHEV control variables are conducted for the purpose of extracting and analyzing optimal SoC trajectory patterns. It is shown that the optimality is closely related to the minimization of SoC trajectory length with respect to travelled distance. This finding is used for SoC reference trajectory synthesis in the presence of LEZ and varying road grades. Finally, the overall PHEV control strategy is applied to a PHEV-type city bus and verified by means of computer simulations in comparison with the DP optimization benchmark.